Frameworks, Theories and Models

Thanks to Tracy’s blog for sharing how to create a HMTL table. With more time and practice I am sure I could improve how it is displayed.

   THEORY                               PURPOSE           APPLICATION/PLANNING
CLEM model Help Understand how to learn about a new ICT 
and how to use it to enhance learning.
If there are any new ICTS use it to help explorations
and useful as part of the planning process. 
TPACK framework Technological Pedagogical & Content Knowledge. 
Ways of thinking about different types of knowledge
that help to select ICTs to enhance learning. 
Identify how ICT would benefit and enhance student
learning. Experiment with ICT before inclusion. Could also be 
used as a reflection tool. 
Backwards Design  Creating assessment items working with the end
in mind then follow on to plan learning experiences
that build students ability to complete the assessment.
Planning assessment first working backwards. Check 
the curriculum requirements then plan from the end to 
the beginning, used for planning a unit of work or a stand
alone lesson plan. 
SAMR model The SAMR model represents Subsitution, Augumentation,
Modification and Redefinition helps to integrate technology in the classroom.
Assist planning to consider how ICT’s will be used as a 
tool to enhance learning. Consider the capabilities of what 
else the ICT offers. Could be used as a tool to evaluate how  
success was the ICT integrated. 
TIP model TIP represents Technology Integration Planning the purpose is to design

appropriate integration of ICT’s in lesson planning. 

Use in planning to enhance learning experiences
to determine advantage, relevance, strategies and 
The 5e’s The 5e’s instructional method is a planning tool that aligns with 
purpose for students to engage in the inquiry process. 
1. Engage 2. Explore 3. Explain 4. Elaborate 5. Evaluate
Plan lessons with the 5e’s helps to embed the 
inquiry process within the sequence of lessons
and helps to structure and consider appropriate ICT.
WALT & WILF WALT refers to the learning intention. Used to explicitly identify
what students are being asked to do.

WILF refers to the success criteria. Used to assist students to 
make decisions on how they attempt the task. 

Use to plan learning experiences so students are informed
about the expectations of the task. Makes learning objectives
Connectivism Learning that recognises the social and cultural context. Considers
how people live, communicate and learn. You learn more when you 
connect with other people. 
Plan experiences that consider students prior knowledge so 
they have opportunity to connect it to new knowledge.Consider
planning lessons that allow students to make connections with 
each other and access the global community. 
Blooms Taxonomy  Helps to develop questions that encourage higher order thinking skills. Plan lessons that include design of questions that allow
students higher order thinking skills to be developed to enable 
deeper understandings. 
Postman’s 5 things Planning must encourage effective use of ICT. Consider and plan 
for technological change. 
Plan ICT’s that align with the technological changes in 
the classroom. Select appropriate tools. 
Tool-belt theory
TEST framework
A collection of resources that help to teach lessons effectively.
Purpose is to help you decide what ICT’s to use in the classroom.

Plan for diversity, differentiation consider options 
available that relate to real world experiences and 
what is appropriate for this age group.
PKM Personal Knowledge Management. Purpose is to acquire a
network of information, resources, connections to teachers that
help you to increase your knowledge in specific areas. 
Plan with access to a wide range of resources so that it will
enable the design of appropriate ICT rich lesson plans. 

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